Residential Solar Power Systems Cost in Albion California
Solar power systemJump to navigation Jump to search Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connected assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 24% A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a battery pack for storage, interconnection wiring, and optionally a solar tracking mechanism. The most common application of solar panels is solar water heating systems. The price of solar power has continued to fall so that in many countries it is cheaper than ordinary fossil fuel electricity from the electricity grid, a phenomenon known as grid parity. See also: Solar cell From a solar cell to a PV system Photovoltaic modules use light energy (photons) from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer or the back layer. Cells must also be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are also available. The cells must be connected electrically in series, one to another. Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors type to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. Module electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial module shading, to maximize the output of module sections still illuminated. Some special solar PV modules include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-effective way. Solar panels also use metal frames consisting of racking components, brackets, reflector shapes, and troughs to better support the panel structure. See also: Solar cell efficiency Reported timeline of solar cell energy conversion efficiencies since 1976 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Depending on construction, photovoltaic modules can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence, much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar modules, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into six to eight different wavelength ranges that will produce a different color of light, and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges. This has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. Scientists from Spectrolab, a subsidiary of Boeing, have reported development of multi-junction solar cells with an efficiency of more than 40%, a new world record for solar photovoltaic cells. The Spectrolab scientists also predict that concentrator solar cells could achieve efficiencies of more than 45% or even 50% in the future, with theoretical efficiencies being about 58% in cells with more than three junctions. Currently, the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar module efficiency) is around 21.5% in new commercial products typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The most efficient mass-produced solar modules[disputed – discuss] have power density values of up to 175 W/m2 (16.22 W/ft2). Research by Imperial College, London has shown that the efficiency of a solar panel can be improved by studding the light-receiving semiconductor surface with aluminum nanocylinders similar to the ridges on Lego blocks. The scattered light then travels along a longer path in the semiconductor which means that more photons can be absorbed and converted into current. Although these nanocylinders have been used previously (aluminum was preceded by gold and silver), the light scattering occurred in the near infrared region and visible light was absorbed strongly. Aluminum was found to have absorbed the ultraviolet part of the spectrum, while the visible and near infrared parts of the spectrum were found to be scattered by the aluminum surface. This, the research argued, could bring down the cost significantly and improve the efficiency as aluminum is more abundant and less costly than gold and silver. The research also noted that the increase in current makes thinner film solar panels technically feasible without "compromising power conversion efficiencies, thus reducing material consumption". Micro-inverted solar panels are wired in parallel, which produces more output than normal panels which are wired in series with the output of the series determined by the lowest performing panel (this is known as the "Christmas light effect"). Micro-inverters work independently so each panel contributes its maximum possible output given the available sunlight. Main articles: Crystalline silicon and Thin film solar cell Market-share of PV technologies since 1990 Most solar modules are currently produced from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells made of multicrystalline and monocrystalline silicon. In 2013, crystalline silicon accounted for more than 90 percent of worldwide PV production, while the rest of the overall market is made up of thin-film technologies using cadmium telluride, CIGS and amorphous silicon Emerging, third generation solar technologies use advanced thin-film cells. They produce a relatively high-efficiency conversion for the low cost compared to other solar technologies. Also, high-cost, high-efficiency, and close-packed rectangular multi-junction (MJ) cells are preferably used in solar panels on spacecraft, as they offer the highest ratio of generated power per kilogram lifted into space. MJ-cells are compound semiconductors and made of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor materials. Another emerging PV technology using MJ-cells is concentrator photovoltaics ( CPV ). In rigid thin-film modules, the cell and the module are manufactured in the same production line. The cell is created on a glass substrate or superstrate, and the electrical connections are created in situ, a so-called "monolithic integration". The substrate or superstrate is laminated with an encapsulant to a front or back sheet, usually another sheet of glass. The main cell technologies in this category are CdTe, or a-Si, or a-Si+uc-Si tandem, or CIGS (or variant). Amorphous silicon has a sunlight conversion rate of 6–12% Flexible thin film cells and modules are created on the same production line by depositing the photoactive layer and other necessary layers on a flexible substrate. If the substrate is an insulator (e.g. polyester or polyimide film) then monolithic integration can be used. If it is a conductor then another technique for electrical connection must be used. The cells are assembled into modules by laminating them to a transparent colourless fluoropolymer on the front side (typically ETFE or FEP) and a polymer suitable for bonding to the final substrate on the other side. Main articles: Smart module and Solar micro-inverter Several companies have begun embedding electronics into PV modules. This enables performing maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for each module individually, and the measurement of performance data for monitoring and fault detection at module level. Some of these solutions make use of power optimizers, a DC-to-DC converter technology developed to maximize the power harvest from solar photovoltaic systems. As of about 2010, such electronics can also compensate for shading effects, wherein a shadow falling across a section of a module causes the electrical output of one or more strings of cells in the module to fall to zero, but not having the output of the entire module fall to zero. Module performance is generally rated under standard test conditions (STC): irradiance of 1,000 W/m2, solar spectrum of AM 1.5 and module temperature at 25°C. Electrical characteristics include nominal power (PMAX, measured in W), open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current (ISC, measured in amperes), maximum power voltage (VMPP), maximum power current (IMPP), peak power, (watt-peak, Wp), and module efficiency (%). Nominal voltage refers to the voltage of the battery that the module is best suited to charge; this is a leftover term from the days when solar modules were only used to charge batteries. The actual voltage output of the module changes as lighting, temperature and load conditions change, so there is never one specific voltage at which the module operates. Nominal voltage allows users, at a glance, to make sure the module is compatible with a given system. Open circuit voltage or VOC is the maximum voltage that the module can produce when not connected to an electrical circuit or system. VOC can be measured with a voltmeter directly on an illuminated module's terminals or on its disconnected cable. The peak power rating, Wp, is the maximum output under standard test conditions (not the maximum possible output). Typical modules, which could measure approximately 1 m × 2 m or 3 ft 3 in × 6 ft 7 in, will be rated from as low as 75 W to as high as 350 W, depending on their efficiency. At the time of testing, the test modules are binned according to their test results, and a typical manufacturer might rate their modules in 5 W increments, and either rate them at +/- 3%, +/-5%, +3/-0% or +5/-0%. Solar water heater The ability of solar modules to withstand damage by rain, hail, heavy snow load, and cycles of heat and cold varies by manufacturer, although most solar panels on the U.S. market are UL listed, meaning they have gone through testing to withstand hail. Many crystalline silicon module manufacturers offer a limited warranty that guarantees electrical production for 10 years at 90% of rated power output and 25 years at 80%. Installations intended to withstand extreme environments like large hail or heavy snow will require extra protection in the form of steep installations, sturdy framing and stronger glazing. Potential induced degradation (also called PID) is a potential induced performance degradation in crystalline photovoltaic modules, caused by so-called stray currents. This effect may cause power loss of up to 30%. The largest challenge for photovoltaic technology is said to be the purchase price per watt of electricity produced, new materials and manufacturing techniques continue to improve the price to power performance. The problem resides in the enormous activation energy that must be overcome for a photon to excite an electron for harvesting purposes. Advancements in photovoltaic technologies have brought about the process of "doping" the silicon substrate to lower the activation energy thereby making the panel more efficient in converting photons to retrievable electrons. Chemicals such as Boron (p-type) are applied into the semiconductor crystal in order to create donor and acceptor energy levels substantially closer to the valence and conductor bands. In doing so, the addition of Boron impurity allows the activation energy to decrease 20 fold from 1.12 eV to 0.05 eV. Since the potential difference (EB) is so low, the Boron is able to thermally ionize at room temperatures. This allows for free energy carriers in the conduction and valence bands thereby allowing greater conversion of photons to electrons. Solar panel conversion efficiency, typically in the 20% range, is reduced by dust, grime, pollen, and other particulates that accumulate on the solar panel. "A dirty solar panel can reduce its power capabilities by up to 30% in high dust/pollen or desert areas", says Seamus Curran, associate professor of physics at the University of Houston and director of the Institute for NanoEnergy, which specializes in the design, engineering, and assembly of nanostructures. Paying to have solar panels cleaned is often not a good investment; researchers found panels that had not been cleaned, or rained on, for 145 days during a summer drought in California, lost only 7.4% of their efficiency. Overall, for a typical residential solar system of 5 kW, washing panels halfway through the summer would translate into a mere $20 gain in electricity production until the summer drought ends—in about 2 ½ months. For larger commercial rooftop systems, the financial losses are bigger but still rarely enough to warrant the cost of washing the panels. On average, panels lost a little less than 0.05% of their overall efficiency per day. Most parts of a solar module can be recycled including up to 95% of certain semiconductor materials or the glass as well as large amounts of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Some private companies and non-profit organizations are currently engaged in take-back and recycling operations for end-of-life modules. Recycling possibilities depend on the kind of technology used in the modules: Since 2010, there is an annual European conference bringing together manufacturers, recyclers and researchers to look at the future of PV module recycling. See also: List of photovoltaics companies In 2010, 15.9 GW of solar PV system installations were completed, with solar PV pricing survey and market research company PVinsights reporting growth of 117.8% in solar PV installation on a year-on-year basis. With over 100% year-on-year growth in PV system installation, PV module makers dramatically increased their shipments of solar modules in 2010. They actively expanded their capacity and turned themselves into gigawatt GW players. According to PVinsights, five of the top ten PV module companies in 2010 are GW players. Suntech, First Solar, Sharp, Yingli and Trina Solar are GW producers now, and most of them doubled their shipments in 2010. The basis of producing solar panels revolves around the use of silicon cells. These silicon cells are typically 10-20% efficient at converting sunlight into electricity, with newer production models now exceeding 22%. In order for solar panels to become more efficient, researchers across the world have been trying to develop new technologies to make solar panels more effective at turning sunlight into energy. In 2014, the world's top four solar module producers in terms of shipped capacity during the calendar year of 2014 were Yingli, Trina Solar, Sharp Solar and Canadian Solar. See also: Grid parity Swanson's law states that with every doubling of production of panels, there has been a 20 percent reduction in the cost of panels. Average pricing information divides in three pricing categories: those buying small quantities (modules of all sizes in the kilowatt range annually), mid-range buyers (typically up to 10 MWp annually), and large quantity buyers (self-explanatory—and with access to the lowest prices). Over the long term there is clearly a systematic reduction in the price of cells and modules. For example, in 2012 it was estimated that the quantity cost per watt was about US$0.60, which was 250 times lower than the cost in 1970 of US$150. A 2015 study shows price/kWh dropping by 10% per year since 1980, and predicts that solar could contribute 20% of total electricity consumption by 2030, whereas the International Energy Agency predicts 16% by 2050. Real world energy production costs depend a great deal on local weather conditions. In a cloudy country such as the United Kingdom, the cost per produced kWh is higher than in sunnier countries like Spain. Following to RMI, Balance-of-System (BoS) elements, this is, non-module cost of non-microinverter solar modules (as wiring, converters, racking systems and various components) make up about half of the total costs of installations. For merchant solar power stations, where the electricity is being sold into the electricity transmission network, the cost of solar energy will need to match the wholesale electricity price. This point is sometimes called 'wholesale grid parity' or 'busbar parity'. Some photovoltaic systems, such as rooftop installations, can supply power directly to an electricity user. In these cases, the installation can be competitive when the output cost matches the price at which the user pays for his electricity consumption. This situation is sometimes called 'retail grid parity', 'socket parity' or 'dynamic grid parity'. Research carried out by UN-Energy in 2012 suggests areas of sunny countries with high electricity prices, such as Italy, Spain and Australia, and areas using diesel generators, have reached retail grid parity. According to the latest Indian solar market research, 2018 by Loom Solar "India's premium solar brand store", the average solar panels price range is Rs. 30 to 45 per watt, and the most demand of solar panels is 1 kW to 10 kW for home, office, and commercial spaces. Main articles: Photovoltaic mounting system and Solar tracker Solar modules mounted on solar trackers Ground-mounted photovoltaic system are usually large, utility-scale solar power plants. Their solar modules are held in place by racks or frames that are attached to ground-based mounting supports. Ground based mounting supports include: Roof-mounted solar power systems consist of solar modules held in place by racks or frames attached to roof-based mounting supports. Roof-based mounting supports include: Solar trackers increase the amount of energy produced per module at a cost of mechanical complexity and need for maintenance. They sense the direction of the Sun and tilt or rotate the modules as needed for maximum exposure to the light. Alternatively, fixed racks hold modules stationary as the sun moves across the sky. The fixed rack sets the angle at which the module is held. Tilt angles equivalent to an installation's latitude are common. Most of these fixed racks are set on poles above ground. Panels that face West or East may provide slightly lower energy, but evens out the supply, and may provide more power during peak demand. Standards generally used in photovoltaic modules: There are many practical applications for the use of solar panels or photovoltaics. It can first be used in agriculture as a power source for irrigation. In health care solar panels can be used to refrigerate medical supplies. It can also be used for infrastructure. PV modules are used in photovoltaic systems and include a large variety of electric devices: Solar panel has been a well-known method of generating clean, emission free electricity. However, it produces only direct current electricity (DC), which is not what normal appliances use. Solar photovoltaic systems (solar PV systems) are often made of solar PV panels (modules) and inverter (changing DC to AC). Solar PV panels are mainly made of solar photovoltaic cells, which has no fundamental difference to the material for making computer chips. The process of producing solar PV cells (computer chips) is energy intensive and involves highly poisonous and environmental toxic chemicals. There are few solar PV manufacturing plants around the world producing PV modules with energy produced from PV. This measure greatly reduces the carbon footprint during the manufacturing process. Managing the chemicals used in the manufacturing process is subject to the factories' local laws and regulations. With the increasing levels of rooftop photovoltaic systems, the energy flow becomes 2-way. When there is more local generation than consumption, electricity is exported to the grid. However, electricity network traditionally is not designed to deal with the 2- way energy transfer. Therefore, some technical issues may occur. For example in Queensland Australia, there have been more than 30% of households with rooftop PV by the end of 2017. The famous Californian 2020 duck curve appears very often for a lot of communities from 2015 onwards. An over-voltage issue may come out as the electricity flows from these PV households back to the network. There are solutions to manage the over voltage issue, such as regulating PV inverter power factor, new voltage and energy control equipment at electricity distributor level, re-conductor the electricity wires, demand side management, etc. There are often limitations and costs related to these solutions. There is no silver bullet in electricity or energy demand and bill management, because customers (sites) have different specific situations, e.g. different comfort/convenience needs, different electricity tariffs, or different usage patterns. Electricity tariff may have a few elements, such as daily access and metering charge, energy charge (based on kWh, MWh) or peak demand charge (e.g. a price for the highest 30min energy consumption in a month). PV is a promising option for reducing energy charge when electricity price is reasonably high and continuously increasing, such as in Australia and Germany. However for sites with peak demand charge in place, PV may be less attractive if peak demands mostly occur in the late afternoon to early evening, for example residential communities. Overall, energy investment is largely an economical decision and it is better to make investment decisions based on systematical evaluation of options in operational improvement, energy efficiency, onsite generation and energy storage.
Solar Power - The Way ForwardWhy Go Solar?
Protect the environment
Solar is a great way to reduce your carbon footprint. Buildings are responsible for 38 percent of all carbon emissions in the U.S., and going solar can significantly decrease that number. A typical residential solar panel system will eliminate three to four tons of carbon emissions each year—the equivalent of planting over 100 trees annually.
Solar Energy For Your Home DemystifiedDid You Know This About Solar In California?
Most homes consume nearly 11,000 kilowatt-hours of energy each year, 1 meaning that to power your entire home off the grid, you’d need upwards of 30 250-watt solar panels that get a daily average of four hours of full sunlight.
Top Solar Myths That We All Want To KnowCalifornia Solar Resourceful Information:
Clothes can be dried in the sun using clothes lines, cloth racks etc.
How Do You Find Renewable Energy?So, here, we have different kind of solar panels that are actually linked to the RV where Professor Thomas Culhane lives off grid with his wife And we have two different types of solar panels Right here. We have the polycrystalline, and it can be identified as polycrystalline because of its shape. It has a rectangular shape while This is the mono crystalline which can be identified due to the Curved edges. This is actually a more efficient Photovoltaic cell than this but they are both used in producing electricity by converting the sunlight into energy the photovoltaic cells stores the energy produced the power bank under this tent, the batteries and the batteries are necessary because During the night and when there is no enough sunlight we could still use the energy generated from the Sun to power our Houses.
Top Ten Fun Facts About Solar EnergySolar Power Availability and Growth Quick Facts:
Las Vegas, Nevada is the biggest city in the country to operate on 100% renewable resources.
High Demand 2018 Solar Energy ProductsTop 10 Reasons To Go Solar
#1 Drastically reduce or even eliminate your electric bills
#2 Earn a great return on your investment
#3 Protect against rising energy costs
#4 Increase your property value
#5 Boost U.S. energy independence
#6 Create jobs and help your local economy
#7 Protect the environment
#8 Demonstrate your commitment to sustainability
#9 Increase employee morale
#10 Stay competitive
If you are interested in Solar then you are in the right place! We have everything you need from information specific to your city, personal info that will help you in the decision, as well as every researched point of reference needed to understand Solar.
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Interesting Note About Solar Power For Your HomeSolar Myth:
If we can use clean coal, why invest in solar energy?
Fact: Solar power is a cleaner form of energy than “clean coal” because coal isn’t really clean. Coal is one of the dirtiest fossil fuels. Coal mining is responsible for a number of health problems due to the blasting of mountaintops and leaving a pond of black slurry in its path.
The more coal we burn, the more damage we do to the environment as it increases the levels of mercury and smog and additionally increases carbon pollution, leading to more damaging effects in the environment.
Interesting Note About Solar PowerSolar's Share of New Capacity has Grown Rapidly
Solar has ranked first or second in new electric capacity additions in each of the last 5 years. Solar’s increasing competitiveness against other technologies has allowed it to quickly increase its share of total U.S. electrical generation- from just 0.1% in 2010 to nearly 2% in 2017.
What To Know About Buying SolarSolar Myth:
Solar panels are bad for the environment after their lifetime is used up.
Fact: Actually, solar panels are built to reach a maximum lifetime use of 25 years, after which they can be recycled. This all depends on the manufacturer you use to install your solar panels, but knowing whether they will be recycled is a bit tricky as most solar panels are still working optimally.
Additionally, some manufacturers will even recycle them for you free of charge.
Pros and Cons of Portable Solar Power GeneratorSolar industry involves many different activities, from production of the crystalline silicon or thin films to the construction and operation of PV solar plants. This article maps the value chain of solar industry and explains how different segments relate to each other.The Basics of Value ChainsThe concept of value chain was first introduced by business scholar Michael Porter, famous for his research on competitiveness and strategy. As early as in 1985, Porter described value chains as a tool for strategic analysis, based on the processual view of organizations. According to Cambridge University’s Institute for Manufacturing, the idea is to seea manufacturing (or service) organization as a system, made up of subsystems each with inputs, transformation processes and outputs. Inputs, transformation processes, and outputs involve the acquisition and consumption of resources — money, labour, materials, equipment, buildings, land, administration and management. How value chain activities are carried out determines costs and affects profits,Porter’s value chain approach (firm level). Picture credit: WikipediaPorter’s model can be applied at various scales: firm-, region- or industry-level. At the industry level, the value chain encompasses all the various processes involved in the production of goods or services, from raw materials to the delivered product, and is based on the notion of value-added at each stage of production. The British geographer Garry Gereffi developed this idea further with his concept of the Global Value Chains, that span across different regions of the world. According to Gereffi, global value chains include multiple firms and multiple locations, and allow to describethe full range of activities that firms and workers do to bring a product/good or service from its conception to its end use and beyond. This includes activities such as design, production, marketing, distribution and support to the final consumer.Both tools can be of great help in analysing such global industries as solar photovoltaics. They allow to understand the geographical distribution of different production activities, their interconnections and dependencies, and ultimately aid decision-making in choosing new markets for expansion.Photovoltaics Value ChainThe value chain in photovoltaics is considerably complex, and involves all the different processes required to create a utility-scale PV solar system. First, raw silicon must be produced, purified, cut into wafers, doped, cleaned and coated. The cells formed this way are subsequently assembled into modules, arrays and then combined with electrical components to construct a full-fledged system. We have written in detail about these processes before. Now it is time to take a look at the bigger picture.Picture credit: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/machine-learning-from-fundmental-capabilities-features-ravi-muluguSolar DAO uses crystalline silicon solar panels, which is more complex than thin film panels. The latter’s value chain is much shorter: the models are manufactured in one single step from raw silicon and other compound materials by deposing the photovoltaic material on glass or plastic. On the other hand, in concentrating photovoltaics the value chain is more complex than in the case of crystalline silicon, and involves higher costs, because silicon or thin film solar cells must be combined with optical concentrating systems, coolers and trackers, before it can be assembled into an array. That’s why crystalline silicon cells are better suitable for utility scale PV solar plants.However, the real journey starts once the solar cells and modules have been produced. The manufacturing process captures only the upstream part of the value chain, while most of the activities happen in its downstream part. It involves the project planning, implementation, and use phases.Picture credit: Green Rhino Energy, http://www.greenrhinoenergy.com/The project planning phase is very important, and we have written about it before. It encompasses area planning, system preparation, operational model, applying for approvals for the use of land, and considering different financial options. Once this has been done, comes the implementation phase, in which the actual construction process takes place, the system is getting verified and installed. The last part of the downstream value chain is the use phase, which involves a complex socio-technical configuration, as the researchers from Finland’s Aalto University warn. What they call socio-technical configuration involves operation and maintenance activities, as well as different adjustments and negotiations regarding the property relations around the PV solar plant, its positioning within the industry and the market, negotiations with local authorities and communities, and how the plant will be operated, and the energy it produces will be distributed and used, in a given local social context. In terms of the project planning, the use phase involves consideration of political and country risks. Read more about the risk management in PV solar industry in our next publications.Picture credit: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276866186_Renewable_micro-generation_of_heat_and_electricity-Review_on_common_and_missing_socio-technical_configurationsAn Organizational View of the Value ChainSimilarly to any other industry, the photovoltaics value chain can be broken down into several specific types of organizations (supplier, operators, consulting firms) that actually operate the various processes involved into the value chain.First, there is a whole series of products that are required to build a PV solar systems. Thus, the following players must be active on the market:Suppliers of the manufacturing equipmentSuppliers of the raw materials for wafer-, cells- and module productionProducers of crystalline siliconProducers of silicon wafers and ingotsProducers of PV cells and modulesProducers of the mounting structures and trackersProducers of electrical componentsSoftware suppliers for monitoring system and operation of PV solar plantsIn terms of services, there are financial, legal, consulting and testing services that go through the whole value chain, as these services may be required at each stage. One can also include different activities such as education and training of the personnel, publishing and PR efforts to promote solar energy, as well as government relations services to obtain approvals, subsidies and support grants. When it comes to actual phases of the value chain, there are several necessary services as well:Wholesale distributionProject planning and developmentDesign, engineering, and constructionOperations and Maintenance servicesIn an ideal market environment, all these activities can be performed by different organizations that enter contractual relations with each other. In reality, however, firms tend to optimize their cost structures by reducing the transaction costs. There are several ways of doing so: they can form a cluster, by concentrating related and interdependent activities in one region (for example, silicon, wafer and modules production), vertically integrate, by including different stages of manufacturing or downstream activities into the firm structure, or diversify their processes, that is, for example, being both a distributor and doing some activities in unrelated businesses.Depending on the age of the firm and different competitive factors, in can be a pure player in the solar energy industry, or it can be more diversified: for example, like big fossil fuels corporations that enter the renewable energy field as a separate business activity. Diversification can also be organized in terms of combining different fields of renewable energy, like solar and wind.The other trade-off that the firms face is the one between different degrees of vertical integration. Today, most companies are partially vertically integrated, but none covers the whole value chain, although there are many highly specialized companies in the upstream (manufacturing) and downstream (services) parts of the value chain.Thus, the whole value chain can be depicted as follows:Picture credit: Green Rhino Energy, http://www.greenrhinoenergy.com/Read our next post about the geography of solar photovoltaics. Stay tuned with Solar DAO.If you enjoyed this story, please click the 👏 button and share to help others find it! Feel free to leave a comment below.
Top Rated Solution For Solar Energy For Your HomeHow Solar Energy Works
Solar photovoltaic systems have been around for a long time.
Solar photovoltaic systems are a well-proven technology first invented in 1954 by scientists at Bell Labs. Today, solar panels are installed on over one million homes in the U.S.
Why We Bargain Solar (And Maybe You Should Too)How Solar Energy Works
Solar panel systems are a great way for you to save money, no matter what your budget is.
If you can afford to pay your electricity bill every month, you can afford to install a solar panel system. With a $0-down solar loan, solar lease or PPA, you can finance your system and see immediate savings.
What Everybody Ought To Know About Home Solar SystemsQuick Fact About Solar Energy In California:
The water cycle is an important result of solar insulation. The earth, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation and their temperature rises. Warm air rises from the oceans causing convection. When this air rises to high altitudes, clouds are created by condensation of water vapor. These clouds cause rains that bring water back to the earth’s surface which completes the water cycle.
Solar Power Versus Generator The ChoicePV Panels and Maintenance
PV panels need little maintenance; they just need to be kept respectively clean and to not be overshadowed by trees. If dust or snow becomes an issue, they need to be cleaned with warm water and a brush, or high pressure hose. If you don't feel like doing it yourself, you can always contact a window cleaning company and they will do the work.
PV panels are likely to last up to 35 years or more, but the inverter needs to be replaced after ten to fifteen years. However, it is always good to play it safe and check with your installer, what are the specific maintenance requirements for your system, as well as its respective insurance.
Solar photovoltaic electricity is an excellent source of renewable energy and there are plenty of reasons why you should start taking advantage of the benefits it brings. In addition to reducing your carbon footprint, you will also cut down on your electricity bills. What’s more, PV panels are easy to maintain and will last for a long time.
What You Need to Do Today About Home Solar SystemInteresting California Solar Fact:
Solar cells are priced per watt. In 1977, solar cells were unaffordable for most to purchase and install—costing around $77 per watt!
Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Energy For Your HomeGreat California Solar Power Fact:
The earth receives about 1,366 watts of direct solar radiation per square meter.
Fast Fact About SolarSolar Power Availability and Growth Quick Facts:
Pollution can obscure the sun’s rays and stop light from reaching the Earth. Theoretically, the more humans who switch over to solar power and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the greater the Earth’s capacity to harness solar energy. It takes a village, right?
Solar For Your Home Frequently Asked QuestionsCalifornia Solar Basics:
Solar Energy is measured in kilowatt-hour. 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Energy For Your HomeWhy Go Solar?
Protect against rising energy costs
One of the most clear cut benefits of solar panels is the ability to hedge utility prices. In the past ten years, residential electricity prices have gone up by an average of three percent annually. By investing in a solar energy system now, you can fix your electricity rate and protect against unpredictable increases in electricity costs. If you’re a business or homeowner with fluctuating cash flow, going solar also helps you better forecast and manage your expenses.
What Are The Pros And Cons Of Residential Energy Customers Switching To Solar?California Solar Resourceful Information:
Common domestic use of solar energy is from solar panels which absorb solar energy to use for cooking and heating water.
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